Charles Dryden (1920-2008)
Charles Walter Dryden was born in New York City on September 16, 1920, to Jamaican immigrants Violet and Charles Levy (or Levi) Tucker Dryden. He grew up with stories of his father's experiences as a Jamaican sergeant during World War I (1917-18) and the daring exploits of Corporal Eugene Bullard (the "Black Swallow of Death"), the famed African American fighter pilot. Both parents had taught at colleges in Jamaica.
Dryden graduated from Stuyvesant High School in 1938. He received a bachelor's degree in political science from Hofstra University, in New York, in 1955 and a master of arts in public law and government from Columbia University, also in New York, in 1957. With his first wife he had three children. He later married Marymal Morgan.
In the early 1940s his focus was on joining the U.S. Army Air Corps' program to develop African American pilots at a new training center located near the Tuskegee Institute in central Alabama. Authorized
In August 1941 Dryden gained a place in what would become the second class to finish Aviation Cadet Training (in April 1942). One of three to graduate from this class, Second Lieutenant Dryden soon gained the nickname "A-Train," partly from the famed Duke Ellington song and partly from his New York City background, which conjured images of the Eighth Avenue subway express.
Flying P-40F Warhawks, the Ninety-ninth Fighter Squadron was commanded by Captain Benjamin O. Davis Jr. Despite an excellent training record, progress toward the unit's combat deployment proved slow. In April 1943 the airmen arrived in Tunisia, in north Africa, but did not see their first action until June in Italy. On June 9 First Lieutenant Dryden led five other fighters into combat against German aircraft over the Sicilian town of Pantelleria, the first time the African American pilots had engaged the enemy while flying for the U.S. Army Air Corps. The Ninety-ninth maintained relentless air attacks, and two days later the town's Italian garrison surrendered.
Throughout the remainder of the war, the Tuskegee Airmen had a remarkable record. In July 1944 the Ninety-ninth Fighter Squadron became part of the 332nd Fighter Group, an all-black command made up of pilots trained at Tuskegee. Soon after, they began flying P-51 Mustangs, nicknamed "Red Tails" for their distinctive unit markings.
But this success came at a high price: sixty-six of Dryden's fellows were killed in action, and thirty-two became prisoners of war. For their efforts the men won 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses (an award first given to Charles Lindbergh), 744 Air Medals, eight Purple Hearts, and fourteen Bronze Stars. Their achievements convinced many white veterans that African Americans were every bit their equals and deserved better treatment back home. As a result, on July 26, 1948, U.S. president Harry S. Truman signed the executive order that desegregated the U.S. military.
A command pilot with more than 4,000 flying hours, including combat missions during the Korean War, Dryden retired in 1962 after twenty-one years with the air force. He remained an active citizen, though, serving as committeeman in Matawan Township, New Jersey, from 1963 to 1965. He returned to Tuskegee on several occasions for reunions and other special events and also worked to help other minority aviation students and cadets realize their dreams.
Dryden moved to Atlanta in 1996 and that same year received an honorary doctorate of humane letters from Hofstra University. The year 1997 brought much acclaim and attention to Dryden: Georgia secretary of state Max Cleland proclaimed him an "Outstanding Georgia Citizen"; he participated in the opening of the Museum of Aviation display "America's Black Eagles: The Tuskegee Pioneers and Beyond"; and he published his autobiography, A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman. The following year he was inducted into the Georgia Aviation Hall of Fame.
Dryden remained an important friend and supporter of the Museum of Aviation for the rest of his life, often speaking to youth and college groups to encourage them to seek careers in military and civilian aviation. In July 2007 he flew with around 200 students from the Aviation Career Education program in Atlanta to the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, to present the museum with a replica of the Congressional Gold Medal awarded to the Tuskegee Airmen in March 2007. The students' flight was partially sponsored by Delta Air Lines.
Dryden died in Atlanta on June 24, 2008.
Charles W. Dryden, A-Train: Memoirs of a Tuskegee Airman (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1997).
Charles E. Francis, The Tuskegee Airmen: The Men Who Changed a Nation, 4th ed. (Boston: Branden Publishing, 1997).
William Alexander Percy, "Jim Crow and Uncle Sam: The Tuskegee Flying Units and the U.S. Army Air Forces in Europe during World War II," Journal of Military History 67 (July 2003): 773-810.
Jerry Scutts, Mustang Aces of the Ninth and Fifteenth Air Forces and the RAF (London: Osprey Aerospace, 1995).
William P. Head, United States Air Force
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