William Bartram in Georgia
William Bartram's 1791 book, Travels, reprinted many times, continues to fascinate American readers and attract them to the wildernesses he loved. The great explorer and diarist spent much of his time in backwoods Georgia, where he recorded matchless descriptions of the area's flora, fauna, and Native American inhabitants.
Bartram's father, John, was his role model. John Bartram, America's first professional botanist, loved to roam the woods in search of plants,
In 1765 Collinson secured a royal commission naming John Bartram as the "King's Botanist" and authorizing him to explore Florida, newly acquired by Britain from Spain. John Bartram, now sixty-five, took his son, aged twenty-six, along with him. Starting in Charleston, South Carolina, the two visited Savannah and Augusta in Georgia, and boated up the St. Johns River in Florida. The young Bartram loved Florida
The great adventure that transformed the unfortunate Billy Bartram into the heroic William Bartram began when he disembarked in Charleston on March 31, 1773. His father's Charleston connections proved helpful. John Stuart, the royal Indian superintendent, provided maps of the Indian country and informed Bartram of an important Indian congress to be held in Augusta in May. Bartram resolved to attend that meeting but spent the intervening time investigating plant life along the Georgia coast during the pleasant spring season. Bartram visited James Wright, the royal governor, in Savannah and enjoyed the hospitality of "the genteel and polite ladies and gentlemen" of Midway and Sunbury. He especially liked Lachlan McIntosh and his family and spent several days with them. His descriptions of the Altamaha River region would later inspire European poets.
Bartram's notes of the Augusta Indian congress offer the best description of events, because the official minutes of the meeting have been lost. The Cherokee chiefs agreed to give up a huge tract of land in exchange for the cancellation of the debts they owed to traders. The Creek leaders, who claimed a portion of the same territory and who were not in debt, heaped scorn on the Cherokees. Even though the Creek elders were persuaded to sign the treaty, young warriors deeply resented the loss of their hunting grounds. Bartram accompanied the surveying party that marked the boundaries of the new cession and recorded his delight in all he saw.
Events determined the course of Bartram's travels. The Indian conference had drawn him to the Georgia backcountry, and an outbreak of Indian hostilities thwarted his plan of touring the Indian country. He returned to the Georgia coast, and in the spring he retreated to the comparative safety of Florida. He accompanied a party of traders in the employ of James Spalding to Indian villages. Cowkeeper, the headman of Cuscowilla, gave Bartram the name "Puc-puggy," the Flower Hunter. He later canoed up the St. Johns River, battling alligators and revisiting sites he had seen with his father.
When Governor Wright signed a peace treaty with a delegation of Creek leaders in October 1774, Bartram decided that it was safe to embark on his deferred tour of the Indian country. Though he did not refer to it in his journal, the Revolutionary movement gathered momentum in Charleston and along the Georgia coast. Bartram, by choice and disposition a Quaker, tried to remain neutral.
Bartram's effusive description of the Cherokee mountains continues to attract tourists today. After visiting the Cherokee villages along the Little Tennessee River, Bartram returned to join a trading caravan headed for Mobile, Alabama, and the Creek country. He avoided Augusta and Savannah, where Sons of Liberty made life difficult for those who wished to remain neutral. Bartram's journal provides the most valuable historical record of Creek life at the time of the American Revolution (1775-83). His travels took him to Mobile and Pensacola, Florida, and by boat to the Mississippi River.
When he returned to Savannah in January 1776, the Revolutionary War had begun. Georgians under the command of Bartram's friend Lachlan McIntosh fought against British warships in the Savannah River. Neutrality was no longer an option for the Quaker. Though he did not mention it in his book of travels, Bartram's private papers reveal that he actually participated in a skirmish with British soldiers and their Indian allies along the Florida border. As soon as he could, Bartram put the war behind him and returned to his father's garden in Pennsylvania as something of a celebrity. He enjoyed eight months of companionship with his father before John Bartram died in September 1777.
Bartram wrote his book while the founding fathers drafted a constitution for the republic. He saw divine guidance at work in the shaping of the new country. "I foresee a magnificent structure and would be instrumental in its advancement," he wrote. His book exalted the human spirit and celebrated the richness of America's natural world. He called upon Americans to respect the rights of Indians, to eradicate slavery, and to live up to the best in themselves.
Bartram died at his family home near Philadelphia on July 22, 1823.
William Bartram, Bartram's Living Legacy: The Travels and the Nature of the South, ed. Dorinda Dallmeyer, with original artwork by Philip Juras (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2010).
William Bartram, The Travels of William Bartram, ed. Francis Harper (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998).
William Bartram, Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West Florida, the Cherokee Country, the Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Chactaws (New York: Viking Penguin, 1988).
Kathryn E. Holland Braund and Gregory A. Waselkov, William Bartram on the Southeastern Indians (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995).
Edward J. Cashin, William Bartram and the American Revolution on the Southern Frontier (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000).
Gail Fishman, Journeys through Paradise: Pioneering Naturalists in the Southeast (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000).
Thomas Hallock and Nancy E. Hoffmann, William Bartram, The Search for Nature's Design: Selected Art, Letters, and Unpublished Writings (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2010).
Brad Sanders, Guide to William Bartram's Travels: Following the Trail of America's First Great Naturalist (Athens, Ga.: Fevertree Press, 2002).
Charles D. Spornick, Alan R. Cattier, and Robert J. Greene, An Outdoor Guide to Bartram's Travels (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2003).
Philip Lee Williams, The Flower Seeker: An Epic Poem of William Bartram (Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 2010).
Edward J. Cashin, Augusta State University
A project of the Georgia Humanities Council, in partnership with the University of Georgia Press, the University System of Georgia/GALILEO, and the Office of the Governor.